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What is a Prenatal 3d / 4d Ultrasound Imaging?

On : Wed, 09 Feb 2011

For many years sonography was limited to 2D (2-dimensional) cross-sectional scans through anatomy.  Now 2D imaging has been extended into 3D (3-dimensional) scanning and imaging.  This requires scanning the ultrasound through many adjacent tissue cross-sections to build up a 3D volume of echo information.  This 3D volume of echoes can then be processed and interrogated to present 2D or 3D images of the anatomy.

A 4D ultrasound represents the difference between still photography (3D) and video. Through this revolutionary technology your baby’s 3D image is continuously updated providing you with live action. In reality this means that, for the first time, you can watch your baby smiling, sucking its thumb, yawning and stretching as it happens and in colour.

Can we perform coronary artery bypass grafting on the basis of computed tomographic angiography alone? A comparison with conventional coronary angiography Harinder Singh Bedi

On : Wed, 09 Feb 2011

Objectives: Multislice (64 slice) computed tomography (MSCT) angiography has recently
emerged as a potential technique that can evaluate the coronaries in an accurate yet non-invasive
manner. It has still not been shown whether the accuracy of the anatomy shown is precise
enough to operate on the basis of MSCT alone. The aim of this prospective clinical trial is to
compare MSCT to conventional coronary angiography (CCA), and to conclude whether MSCT
alone is adequate for proceeding for CABG. Methods: 50 patients with proven severe coronary
artery disease (CAD) on CCA for elective CABG underwent MSCT prior to CABG. The MSCT
images were compared with CCA and the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of detecting
significant stenosis cross checked. Lesion-by-lesion analysis was made. CCA was used as the
reference standard for location and degree of stenosis. Results: An excellent correlation was found between the CCA and MSCT

The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values for quantitative assessment of stenosis
>70% by MSCT compared to CCA were 98.5, 99.1, 82.3 and 99.8%, respectively. Comparing the maximal percent diameter luminal
stenosis by MSCT versus CCA, the Pearson's correlation coefficient between the two modalities was 0.994 (p < 0.0001). Bland-Altman
analysis demonstrated a mean difference in percent stenosis of 0.05 ± 2.42% (p = 0.753). There was no significant correlation between
stenosis difference and stenosis severity (Pearson's correlation coefficient = –0.027, p = 0.695). 192 out of 207 (92.8%) of the
observations were within ±1.96 SD (4.8 to –4.7% stenosis difference). Conclusions: The improved spatial and temporal resolution of the
64 row scanner provides an excellent correlation of MSCT with CCA. MSCT is a valuable tool in the armamentarium of the cardiac
scientist. For the cardiac surgeon performing off pump CABG it helps in precise planning of the procedure and pre-judging the length of
the conduit required. On the basis of our findings, in selected patients, we recommend the consideration of MSCT as a sole criteria for
proceeding for CABG without CCA.

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CVD can effect people of all ages and population CVD can effect people of all ages and population

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